Thursday, October 29, 2015

Site:  Copan
Schele Number:  3518
Description:  Bust of young maize god from structure 10l22.
Chronological Era:  Late Classic
Culture:  Maya
Iconographic Features:  God E, Maize God
Publications:  L. Schele and P. Mathews, The Code of Kings: The Language of Seven Sacred Maya Temples and Tombs 1998:413
See Also:  Schele Photos for "Copan"

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Site:  Copan
Schele Number:  7675
Description:  The maize god being reborn from the cleft in the cosmic turtle's back.
Chronological Era:  Late Classic
Culture:  Maya
Publications:  L. Schele and P. Mathews, The Code of Kings: The Language of Seven Sacred Maya Temples and Tombs 1998:144, Fig. 4.13
See Also:  Schele Photos for "Copan"

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Lintel 24 ancient Maya limestone carving from Yaxchilan,linda schele colection

Lintel 24 ancient Maya limestone carving from Yaxchilan,linda schele colection

mayan line drawings yaxchilan

linda schele colection


Lintel 24 is the designation given by modern archaeologists to an ancient Maya limestone carving from Yaxchilan, in modern ChiapasMexico. The lintel dates to about AD 725, placing it within the Maya Late Classic period. The text ofMaya hieroglyphics indicates that the scene depicted is a bloodletting ritual that took place on 5 Eb 15 Mac, October 24, AD 709.[1] The ruler, Shield Jaguar, holds a torch while his consort, Lady Xoc, pulls a rope studded with what are now believed to be obsidian shards through her tongue in order to conjure a vision serpent.

Yaxchilan Lintel 24.jpg


About the Linda Schele Drawings
by Peter L. Mathews
This wonderful archive represents the drawings made over the career of the great Mesoamerican scholar Linda Schele, who died in 1998. Linda was a prolific scholar who originally trained as a studio art teacher. Most of the drawings in this collection were made by her as illustrations for her numerous publications.
Linda Schele’s great books include:  "Maya Glyphs: The Verbs" (Schele 1982),  the "Palenque Bodega" book (Schele and Mathews 1979),  "The Blood of Kings" (Schele and Miller 1986),  "A Forest of Kings" (Schele and Freidel 1990),  "Maya Cosmos" (Freidel, Schele, and Parker 1993), and "The Code of Kings" (Schele and Mathews 1998).  Where possible, references will be made to these publications in the captions. References to other publications will be included where appropriate. In most cases, explanations and interpretations of the drawings can be found in the cited publication, and the browser/reader may find it of value to check the reference as a first step to finding out more about the monument in question.
Linda Schele believed very strongly in open scholarship, and readily shared with others her work, whether it was "work-in-progress," or new insights, or finished manuscripts. In similar vein, she believed fiercely in the open and free dissemination of her drawings: she wanted them to be available to all who wanted to use them, whether they were recognized scholars or interested amateurs. Linda always freely gave permission for others to use and publish them. This openness paid off in many different ways. On several occasions, someone would see one or other of her drawings and enter into correspondence with her, beginning an exchange that led to a significant new find or interpretation.
Linda wanted that spirit of openness and sharing to continue after her death, and she and her husband David stipulated that FAMSI should be the central clearing-house for the public dissemination of her drawings, via its web-site. The original drawings have been bequeathed to the Schele Collection in the Benson Library at the University of Texas.
In accordance with Linda’s wishes, the drawings contained in this archive are freely available to all interested parties for scholarly study. For publication use of her drawings, permission must be requested from FAMSI. The Foundation will then provide a copyright license. In honor of Linda, FAMSI may request a donation for the Schele Chair at the University of Texas. Processing fees are charged if applicable. Requests and correspondence should be addressed to: or FAMSI at 268 South Suncoast Boulevard, Crystal River, Florida, 34429.  (Fax: 352-795-1970).
The drawings in this archive were made over an almost 30-year career, and incorporate a few changes in drawing conventions (those representing broken sections of monument, plain background, and so on). The archive also includes some charts, computer-generated illustrations, and field sketches, although the vast majority represent final, inked drawings of monuments and inscriptions. These finished drawings were made on Mylar drafting film, and the earlier ones were made by using technical drafting pens and China ink. During the 1990’s, Linda began to use "felt-tipped" pigment liner pens. Linda’s drawing lines are characterized by quite fine lines: she mostly used pens of 000, 00, 0, 01, and 02 thickness, and only rarely used pens with a line thickness of 03 or greater.
The format chosen for the captions is somewhat open-ended. It has been decided for the sake of expedience that at minimum the site, building, and monument designations be recorded. In most cases, however, we have tried to go further. Sometimes this involves further specification (for example, which segment of the text, if the drawing is not of a complete inscription). In many cases, Linda signed the drawing, and in some cases she also noted the year in which the drawing was completed: where possible, this information is included in the caption.
The captions to the drawings in the Linda Schele Archive have been contributed by many of Linda’s friends. David Schele himself coordinated several of Linda’s students in the project (Julie Acuff, Joyce Banks, Ed Barnhart, Cristin Cash, Lori Conley, Michelle Dippel, Nicole Dunn, Megan O’Neil, Matthew H. Robb, and Mark Van Stone) and great headway was made. Other contributors have been Inga Calvin, Justin Kerr, Peter Mathews, Sandra Noble, and Sylvia Perrine.
I hope that this archive will prove as useful to future investigators after Linda Schele’s passing as it has been to her friends and colleagues during her lifetime. This remarkable archive stands as one of the memorials to the great achievements of a phenomenally talented woman who forever altered the course of Mesoamerican research and also the way in which that research is conducted. I should again like to thank David Schele for his generosity in allowing, and aiding, the dissemination of this archive, and also FAMSI for providing the resources to do it.
As Linda would have said, "Well, here it is—now go out and use it!"
Sources Cited
Freidel, David A., Linda Schele, and Joy Parker
1993Maya Cosmos: Three Thousand Years on the Shaman’s Path.  New York: William Morrow and Company.
Schele, Linda
1982Maya Glyphs: The Verbs.  Austin: The University of Texas Press.
Schele, Linda, and David Freidel
1990A Forest of Kings: Untold Stories of the Ancient Maya.  New York: William Morrow and Co.
Schele, Linda, and Peter Mathews
1979The Bodega of Palenque, Chiapas, México.  Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks.
1998The Code of Kings: The Language of Seven Sacred Maya Temples and Tombs.  New York: Scribner.
Schele, Linda, and Mary Ellen Miller
1986The Blood of Kings: Dynasty and Ritual in Maya Art.  New York: George Braziller, Inc., in association with the Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth.

Wednesday, October 28, 2015

Mayan hallucinogenic enema vase carving

Drugs where the sun don’t shine: a cultural history

Through the history of humanity, every culture has made use of psychoactive substances. While smoking, eating and injecting have generated most interest, taking drugs through the nether regions has a remarkably long history.
Firstly, let’s get your burning question out of the way. The reason someone might want to administer drugs through the vagina or anus is because these areas have two properties that make them excellent drug delivery systems: they are moist and they have an excellent blood supply.
This means drugs will be absorbed into the bloodstream and reach the brain very quickly – often more quickly than if you drank the substance.
We know why this works due to medical research, but as we wander through the history of downstairs doping, you may wish to take a moment to reflect on how this remarkable fact was first discovered.
The earliest accounts of rectal administration of psychoactive drugs come from the Ancient Mayan civilization where ritual enemas were commonlyused to induce states of trance and were widely depicted on carvings andpottery.
The image above is a Mayan carving depicting a priest giving reclining man a large ritual enema to the point where he sees winged reptile Gods flying overhead. Sorry hipsters, your parties suck.
It wasn’t just the Mayans, though. The historical use of psychoactive enemas was known throughout the Americas and is still used by traditional societies today.


Posted June 19, 2013 at 12:59 pm | Permalink
Intriguing article but two things:
“The earliest accounts of rectal administration of psychoactive drugs come from the Ancient Mayan civilization”
Niggly-seeming, but “Mayan” with the -n is only properly used in reference to written or spoken Maya languages. You can say “The Mayan word for tick is pech”. You can’t say, well, “the Ancient Mayan civilization”.
We archaeologists kind of use this one as a shibboleth. When we (or you, or anyone else) see “Mayan” used wrong, alarm bells go off. People who use “Mayan” also end up talking about crystal skulls and spirit paths and which ever site is Atlantis today.
The other thing is that it isn’t quite correct to say that the earliest accounts of rectal administration of drugs come from the Maya. I work at a Bolivian site and all the statues there are holding hallucinogenic enemas ( enema plus snuff tablet! Party!). This site totally overlaps with the Classic Maya. Various artefacts from the Andes (some of it pre-dating the Maya or at least the Maya art you are referencing) are believed to show the use of hallucinogenic enemas.
Saying “one of the earliest accounts…Maya” would sort you out.
Now this Latin American archaeologist needs to get herself back to work.

Tuesday, October 27, 2015

Popul Vuh Twins Confirmed by Mirador relief carvings hydraulics works with his father's (The Maize God) head

On March 7, 2009, was revealed to the world by Dr. Richard Hansen a large Frieze or Panel, measuring 3 m. high and 4 m wide, that is dated ca. 300 BC, and decorated a Royal pool that formed part of the hydraulics works of the city. The Panel  represents the hero twins Hunahpú and Ixbalnqué, swimming away from Xibalbá, with his father's (The Maize God) head as the Popol Vuh, 19 centuries later relates.


April 9, 2012

A Watery Tableau at El Mirador, Guatemala 3

by James Doyle (Brown University) and Stephen Houston (Brown University)
The impersonation of gods abounds in Classic Maya texts and imagery (Houston, Stuart, and Taube 2006: 270-275). Humans donned elaborate masks and costumes to channel deities and to perform dances or reenactments of mythic actions. It is now clear that there were Late Preclassic antecedents to such ritual: for example, Kaminaljuyu Stela 11 displays the “x-ray” view of a lord’s face within the head of the Principal Bird Deity (Fields and Reents-Budet, eds., 2005: Cat. 6, 104-105; see also here). The appearance of a possible masked performer in the Preclassic is hardly surprising. Places for performance and assembly– visible pyramid apices, tiered façades, and plaster-covered plazas — reached their pinnacle size at many Lowland Maya sites.
A recent discovery by the important project at El Mirador, Guatemala, consists of a long set of stucco friezes that depicts two more examples of Late Preclassic deity impersonation (Figure 1). The façades are located in a prominent pathway running east-west in the center of the “Central Acropolis.” They appear to front a large plaza at the base of the “Tecolote” pyramid complex, perhaps adorning part of an ancient water collection system (see map). The figures on the lower frieze have been associated with the Hero Twins, Hunahpu and Xbalanque, protagonists of the colonial K’iche Maya creation story, the Popol Vuh (Hansen et al. 2011: 190). Yet, in our view, these figures represent god impersonators and bear no secure connection to twins in the Popol Vuh.

Figure 1. 3D scans of El Mirador friezes, University of South Florida, Alliance for Integrated Spatial Technologies,
The lower, more prominent façade contains three beings: two humans with large headdresses, and the large profile head. The figure on the left, whose face is partially damaged, wears a headdress and shell ear spools. His one visible eye has the inverted-“L” found on some early gods; his mouth displays a circular outline, his outstretched arms and bent legs conform to the pattern of many diving figures in Maya art (see Taube et al. 2010: Fig. 54A).
The central figure strikes a similar posture but in the opposite direction. Both are framed by the diagonal elements with elliptical or volute decorations that recall primordial, living sky bands. The attributes of these bands mark them as maxillae of the animate sky, complete with curved fangs and other teeth; another well-known example is present in a Late Preclassic frieze from Calakmul (Carrasco Vargas 2005: Figure 3, 4).

Figure 2: Chahk figures with curled foreheads or hair (blue) and shell ear spools (green). (a) Calakmul Frieze (drawing by James Doyle after Carrasco Vargas 2005: Fig. 3, 4); (b) Uaxactun Group H Frieze (drawing by James Doyle after Valdés 1993: Fig. 50); (c) Kaminaljuyu Stela 4 (drawing by James Doyle after Taube 1996: Fig. 16b); (d),(e) Izapa Stela 1 (drawings by James Doyle after Taube 1996: Fig. 15a, e); (f) El Mirador Lower Frieze, detail (drawing by James Doyle and Stephen Houston).
The central figure wears a simple knotted belt with an effigy head attached to his lower back. His headdress and chinstrap form the gaping jaws of what is likely a version of Chahk, the god of rain (see Taube 1996: Fig. 15, 16): the diagnostic elements are the curled forehead (or hair) and especially the Spondylus ear spool (Figure 2). The figure on the viewer’s left shares many of the same features, but with different, tufted forehead, as though referring to another aspect of the rain deity. Other such costumed diving figures with curled foreheads appear on contemporaneous stucco friezes at Uaxactun Group H (Valdés 1993: Fig. 50), and Calakmul (Carrasco Vargas 2005: Figure 3, 4).
The profile head on the far right of the lower frieze resembles the many depictions of mountains as breathing beasts in Preclassic and Classic period iconography, such as the witz depicted on the North Wall at San Bartolo (Saturno et al. 2005: 14-21). Perhaps there was another such head on the opposite side, framing this scene as a mythic, mountainous locale from which clouds emerged. This trope in particular goes back to Chalcatzingo Monument 1 (Grove, ed. 1987:115-117) and highlighted in variant form on the San Bartolo North Wall.
The upper façade is an early water-band that contains two large water birds with outstretched wings. The water-band passes over two bulbous cloud or muy elements with swirling volutes, another, archaic guise of Chahk (see Stone and Zender 2011: 142-143). A fascinating detail of the upper frieze is that the artist(s) gave faces – in an archaic, almost “Olmec” style with a snarling upper lip and a single tooth – to the clouds, as if they are peering upward at the water. The central bird figure has the head of an older deity within its breast. This enigmatic bird-god figure appears on many Classic Maya vessels (e.g., K8538, K6181, K6438, K3536, see Finamore and Houston, eds. 2010: 104; see also a related Spondylus shell creature on stuccoed vessel K2027), and is not well understood. The bird on the left of the upper frieze (see here) is likely a cormorant, which possibly would have held a fish in its beak (see K6218, Finamore and Houston, eds. 2010: 103). The water band, probably representing flowing streams of water, as well as avian themes are also present on a slightly later stucco altar from Aguacatal, Campeche (Houston et al. 2005).
The stucco artists of El Mirador were concerned with rain, clouds, waters, Chahk, and water birds that all flow together in the Maya view of grand, hydrological cycles. Perhaps the friezes show a situational composition – a Late Preclassic view of the rainy sky and the water that swirls around in it. Or, perhaps the artists commemorated a narrative of the first rainmakers and their watery assistants. In this way the rulers of El Mirador, through the mechanism of deity impersonation, presented themselves as supernatural agents who controlled the rain. The lower freeze shows the mountains breathing out water as the Chahk impersonators swim in the lower sky; the upper frieze then shows the high altitude products of impersonation, clouds that embody Chahk, and undulating water.

Monday, October 26, 2015

mayan relief line drawings

mayan relief line drawings

    Maya relief of royal blood-letting - BBC

    The Maya calendar has a series of cycles of 52 years each. We are currently in the 13th, which ends 21 December 2012 This lintel from the doorway of a Maya ...

    [PDF]Relief stylization from 3D models using featured lines

    by M Wang - ‎Cited by 4 - ‎Related articles
    sunken reliefline drawings, surface abstraction ... the generation of 2D linedrawings from 3D objects. ... 3D modeling software, such as 3D MAX, Maya, Zbrush,.

    Understanding Greek Vases: A Guide to Terms, Styles, and ...
    Andrew J. Clark, ‎Maya Elston, ‎Mary Louise Hart - 2002 - ‎Art
    A Guide to Terms, Styles, and Techniques Andrew J. Clark, Maya Elston, Mary Louise ... Lydos was one of the first to draw full-bodied, muscular humans, energetic ... especially the all-important relief line — encouraged increased naturalism.

    [PDF]Maya Art - Reed College

    Reed College
    by C Rhyne - ‎2002 - ‎Related articles
    Uxmal, it includes grey scale photographs, line drawings, and factual descriptions of ... the fine draftsmanship and characteristically linear quality of Maya reliefs.

    New Theories on the Ancient Maya - Page 44 - Google Books Result
    Elin C. Danien, ‎Robert J. Sharer, ‎University of Pennsylvania. University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology - 1992 - ‎History
    Rubbings of Maya relief carving, as used by Denison in the early 1930s ... that neither routine photography nor line renderings derived from it can produce. ... of Mayamonuments is nearly as difficult as their drawing, for it involves matters of ...

    Maya Art - Authentic Maya

    Jan 28, 2011 - The art of the Maya, is a reflection of their lifestyle and culture. ... depth of relief, and the treatment of faces had to be recognizable as local art, and the ...Mayan vase paintings are more akin to the art of the modern period than the art of ... How do they use line, thin or thick, space human figures, show life and ...

    Alfred Maudslay and the Maya: A Biography
    Ian Graham - 2002 - ‎Biography & Autobiography
    line drawing is necessarily a simplification, and thus to some extent an ... Maya reliefs can be highly confusing on first acquaintance; one has to study the ...