Tuesday, October 31, 2017

History of Roasted Soy Flour in Japan


History of Roasted Soy Flour in Japan . It is not known when roasted whole (full-fat) soy flour ( kinako ) was introduced to Japan from China, nor are any reference to it in Japanese known. Regular kinako, though the two characters forming the word mean "yellow flour," is actually tan or beige in color. A similar product called uguisu kinako ("nightingale roasted soy flour") is light green, since it is made from dry soybeans having a green seed coat.
Although it is quite possible that roasted soy flour was introduced to Japan over 1,000 years ago by Chinese or Japanese Buddhist monks, the earliest legendary reference to the product in Japan places its origin roughly between 1050 and 1100. A famous general from Kyoto named Hachiman Taro Yoshiie, who is reputed to have been one of the first people in Japan to develop natto (see Chapter 38) is also credited with having developed Japan's first concentrated, high-energy processed food called hyoryogan ("soldiers food pellets") made from a mixture of ground roasted soybeans, buckwheat groats, and hemp seeds, shaped into lightweight little balls to be carried by soldiers on long marches. Hitler developed a similar food prior to World War II, his famous Nazi Food Pills (Ohta 1975). The Japanese Encyclopedia of Food and Drink (Motoyama 1958) states that since olden times roasted soy flour has been mixed with sugar and widely used in Japanese confections such as Ohagi no Mochi Abekawa Mochi Kinako Mochi , and Kinako Dango , each consisting of fresh mochi (pounded glutinous rice cakes) dusted with roasted soy flour. Kinako Amé , whose prototype was developed in China and described in Japan in the Wakan Sansai Zukai (1711), probably gradually became popular after that time. The earliest roasted soy flour in Japan was probably made in farmhouses by roasting whole dry soybeans in an unglazed earthenware pan ( horoku ) over an open fire, then grinding the roasted beans into a flour between the same hand-turned millstones used to grind the soaked soybeans for making farmhouse tofu, or to grind buckwheat for buckwheat flour or noodles. During the late 19th or early 20th century it came to be made on a small commercial scale, the soybeans eventually being roasted over an open fire in a rotating screen drum. In 1923 Piper and Morse reported that a soy coffee, made from roasted soy flour, had been introduced in Japan. During his trip to Japan in 1929-31, William Morse made frequent mention of roasted soy flour and took many photographs of confections made with it. In 1933 he noted that "In East Asia there are popular health drinks made from roasted soybeans." He was probably referring to the soy coffee (Dorsett and Morse 1928-31).
The first report in English about roasted soy flour production in Japan was by A.K. Smith in 1958. He noted that the whole (not dehulled) beans were roasted for 30 minutes or longer in a gas-fired rotating drum, cooled on straw mats, ground to a fairly fine flour, then hand packed in plastic bags. The Kinako Manufacturers Association had about 50 members nationwide, including 16 in Tokyo. The largest plant made no more than 5 tons a day. Production was seasonal, with December being the peak month, corresponding to the widespread consumption of mochi during the New Year's season. Smith recommended that the beans be dehulled before roasting. In 1969 Watanabe reported that about 12,000 tonnes (metric tons) of soybeans were used annually to make roasted soy flour and that an average plant used 200 kg of soybeans a day. Some dehulled their beans before roasting and some ground with a hammermill having a fine screen. It is difficult to know the exact size of the industry at present since the government keeps no separate statistics.

Today in Japan roasted soy flour is used primarily to make confections ( okashi ) in either of two ways. Throughout Japan, but especially in the Kyoto area, either plain or sweetened roasted soy flour is dusted on the surface of various types of mochi; the most popular such preparation is Abekawa Mochi . In and around the city of Takayama in Gifu prefecture, various chewy, taffy-like treats or traditional natural-food candies are made with roasted soy flour as the main ingredient; favorites include Kinako Amé or Genkotsu Amé (Soynut Butter Balls), Kankanbo (Soynut Butter Sticks) or Kokusen (Strips), and Gokabo (Soynut Butter Crunchies filled with Rice Krispies).
History Elsewhere in East Asia . In Indonesia roasted soy flour ( bubuk kedele ) is a popular traditional food, which is always homemade; mixed with spices such as garlic and ground chilies, it is served on special occasions with a festive rice dish called Lontong . In Korea roasted soy flour ( konggomul ) is served with mochi or cooked rice.
Roasted soy flour was one of the first soyfoods to be used in Europe. In 1877 it was first mentioned by Haberlandt in Austria that it could be used to make a tasty soy coffee. Then in 1878 Haberlandt reported that soy coffee had long been used in parts of southern Europe, where the soybean was known as the Coffee Bean. He also first mentioned that roasted soy flour could be used to make soy chocolate. In 1877 Horvath introduced a soy coffee, made from roasted soy flour, to south Russia (Horvath 1927). In 1910 Li Yu-ying in Paris and in 1911-12 Li and Grandvoinnet described roasted soy flour in his writings and began to make it commercially, together with soy coffee and soy chocolate. The first patent for roasted soy flour was granted to LeComte in 1911 (British Patent 7,232). He ground defatted soybean meal and then roasted it. He recommended its use in breads, soy coffee and soy chocolate. A patent for a roasted soy flour made from soy sprouts was granted to Bergey in Paris in 1912 (British Patent 5,169). Thereafter, most of the work with roasted soy flour was done specifically with soy coffee, as described later.
Because most soy flour in the United States has been produced as a way of utilizing or disposing of the large quantities of defatted soy meal left over after extraction of soy oil, there has been very ?? awareness of roasted soy flour in the West, both historically and at the present time, even though its nutty flavor is generally considered much better than that of regular soy flour.
The first reference to roasted soy flour in America was in 1892, when Mr. L.D. Brown of Indiana stated that he had been enjoying soy coffee made from it since about 1875 (Plumb 1894). Plumb published a detailed report on soy coffee in 1894, described later. In 1918 Itano mentioned that in Japan, roasted soybeans were ground in a mill to make the flour, which was nice in dressings for aemono (Japanese-style salads). Also in 1918 Roberts and Miller, home economists at the University of Chicago, described how to make roasted soy flour at home by browning defatted soybean meal in a pan, then used it in a number of diabetic recipes. Piper and Morse (1923) discussed the use of roasted soy flour in sweet cookie fillings, as soy coffee, soy chocolate, or as soynut butter. Interestingly, they reported that in China and Japan the dry beans were soaked in water before being roasted, a practice that seems to have been discontinued??. Roasted soy flour was apparently being marketed as such in the US by the mid-1920s, since Horvath was able to report in 1927 that "The American `health flour' is also a roasted (soy)bean flour." As mentioned earlier, William Morse, who studied soyfoods in Japan, Korea, and China from 1929-1931, made frequent mention of roasted soy flour in his travel log (Dorsett and Morse 1928-31). He remarked on the product's "excellent nutty flavor" and took over 100 photographs of soy confections, cakes, candies, crackers, and sweets, many of which contained roasted soy flour. From 1936-45 roasted soy flour was extremely widely used in the many brands of soy coffee that became popular, especially during World War II, when real coffee was rationed. In The Useful Soybean (1945), Lager mentioned roasted soy flour and described how to prepare it on a home scale, dehulling the dry roasted soybeans using a fan, and recommending its use for adding flavor and nutrition to meatloaves and breads. Harper and Lorenz (1974) in their excellent "Production and Evaluation of Salt Bed Roasted Full-Fat Soy Flour" became the first Westerners to study new methods of producing this fine product and concluded that the flour had excellent bread making properties and that the salt bed process (in which whole soybeans were tumble-roasted in hot salt) was superior for use in Third World countries to the typical extrusion process since the technology was simpler and less expensive, and the flour was easier to grind. Jansen, Harper and O'Deen (1978) reported that whole soy flour made by salt bed roasting at 206-234*C for 15-24 seconds had an unexpectedly high nutritional value (PER of 2.11-2.31 vs. 2.50 for casein, and 75-90% of the trypsin inhibitor activity destroyed) given the fact that the cooking was not done with the usual moist heat. Apparently the key is the rapid penetration of the heat and the fact that the soybean hulls help to lock in some moisture. By comparison, a typical whole soy flour made on a low-cost extrusion cooker had a corrected PER of 2.0 with only 52% loss of anti-trypsin activity. More attention should be given to this promising process.
Extensive information on roasted soy flour plus 14 recipes, including one for each of the Japanese products mentioned earlier, was given in The Book of Tofu (Shurtleff and Aoyagi 1975). As of 1981, roasted soy flour was widely available as kinako at Japanese food stores in America. Only one company in America (Chinese-run GL Enterprises in Oakland, California) made the product. They called it Tiger Power Soyafood!
The great potential of roasted soy flour, which can be made with simple home, village, or small-scale commercial technology, requires little energy or water use in preparation, and is tasty, nutritious, and highly versatile, has not yet been realized in most Third World countries. By some quirk of history, however, it is popular in the highlands of Ecuador. A group living in the Sierras roasts homegrown whole soybeans, grinds them in a coffee mill, then mixes in sugar to make Matchaka or Matchika, which is eaten as a dry snack (Ref??). In Nepal, where soybeans have long been grown and eaten roasted but where water, fuel, and money are increasingly scarce, roasted soy flour, beginning in the early 1980s, started to be used in an indigenous infant formula. Research by a Harvard-MIT Technical Assistance Program showed that an infant formula porridge, equal in nutritional content to imported infant formulas, could be made by mixing 2 parts roasted soybeans with 1 part each of roasted corn and roasted wheat, grinding this to a flour, and cooking it with water. By 1982 the program to introduce this as a weaning food had become Nepalese government policy ( East West Journal , March 1982).
If soybeans are roasted then coarsely ground, they can be used to make a beverage that tastes quite similar to coffee. Soy coffee has been one of the most popular ways of using roasted soy flour or grits in the West for more than a century. Caffeine free, highly nourishing, inexpensive, and easy to make (even as part of a food self sufficiency program, from homegrown soybeans), this hearty brew with its roasted, nutlike aroma, will surprise and delight many a staunch coffee lover or addict. After all, coffee is also made from a bean.
Etymology . In the early European literature, this product was always referred to indirectly, as "roasted soybeans can be ground to make a coffee substitute." In Germany, Fuerstenberg (1917) first used the term Sojabohnenkaffe . Today this has been shortened to Soja kaffe . In France the present term cafe de soja was first used by Rouest in 1921. In Spanish the term Soyafee was first used in Mexico by Dominguez in the late 1970s.
In English the term "soy coffee" was first used by Plump as early as 1894. Later writers also called it "soy-bean coffee??" (Buer 1912) and "soybean coffee" (Piper and Morse 1923; Horvath 1927).
History of Soy Coffee in Europe . Although it is not clear whether the idea of using ground roasted soybeans as a coffee substitute originated in Europe or the United States, the earliest references to soy coffee are in Europe. By the 1870s in Europe coffee was known to be detrimental to good health and essentially void of nutrients. Since the 17th century rye had been used as a coffee substitute and by the late 1800s barley, especially in its malted form, was also widely used. The world's earliest known reference to soy coffee was in 1877 when Haberlandt wrote that "Soybeans roasted at 160*C taste delicious and (when ground) surpass all other plants that have heretofore been used as coffee substitutes." In 1878 Haberlandt reported that soy coffee was already being used in southern Europe:
The soybean is already grown here and there in southern Austria, although it is not widely known. Last summer Dr. E. Mach, director of the agricultural school in southern Tirol [since 1919 in Italy, just south of Brenner pass], sent me a sample of a plant which is aid to have been long known there, and it was none other than the soybean. In that area it is known as the Coffee Bean [Kaffeebohne] and the seeds are used in the manufacture of a coffee substitute. Likewise, Mr. Josef Kristan, a headmaster in Istria [a peninsula in northwest Yugoslavia on the Adriatic Sea] told me that he discovered that soybeans are grown in Istria and their seeds are used to make a coffee substitute. A friend assured him that there was no difference between this and real coffee.
It remains a mystery when and how the soybean came to be grown in these areas and when and how the idea was developed to use them to make only one type of soyfood: soy coffee.
At about this same time, around 1877, Horvath (probably the father of Dr. A.A. Horvath (see Chapter 60) was the first to prepare soy coffee for the market in south Russia (Horvath 1927).
During the 1880s the center of interest in soy coffee shifted to France, where the Society for Acclimatization (see Chapter 48) began to experiment with this new soyfood. In 1880 Paillieux wrote:
In Les Plantes Alimentaires, Heuzé gave the soybean the name dolic a café and said that it was cultivated in all parts of Artiege and Haute Garonne, in France; we have not been able to verify this. We have roasted soybeans and found that they have an aroma like roasted coffee. They make an inferior coffee, but for all the world it is a coffee. On 26 August 1880 we presented a sample to the National Horticultural Society.
In 1884 Paillieux and Bois gave soy coffee a much more positive appraisal:
The soybean is without doubt the best of all coffee substitutes. Soy coffee alone is better than the popular coffee-chicory blend. It makes a good café au lait of which the aroma, although a bit weak, is basically that of mocha . . . A friend of mine prefers soy coffee to mocha. If gardeners would leave a little space in their gardens each year for soybeans, they would have the coffee they need for the family breakfast at no extra cost or payment of taxes.
In 1905 Pinolini in Italy stated that black soybeans were used for coffee. In 1907 Bloch in France reported the results of an analysis done by Kornauth (no citation) on the composition of a sweetened soy coffee used in Switzerland; it contained 5.3% moisture, 34.8% sugar, 18.0% oil, and 49.1% water soluble matter. In 1910, in his book written in Chinese on soyfoods, Li Yu-ying in Paris discussed soy coffee. Then in 1912 Li and Grandvoinnet discussed it in French, giving Kornauth's analysis and mentioning that it had long been used in Switzerland and America. Between 1910 and 1911 Li's soyfoods plant in Paris started making a commercial soy coffee. In 1912 the world's first patents on soy coffee were granted. That year N. Bergey in Paris received a British patent on a process for making soy coffee from sprouted soybeans, roasted while still wet, then re-ground and mixed with grape sugar (glucose), molasses, chicory, etc. Also in 1912 and 1913 H. Buer was granted patents in Britain, France, and Germany for a process and apparatus for making soy coffee. That same year, soy coffee was made commercially in Germany and also used to extend regular coffee by 33% (W. 1913). In 1913 Marschner of Prague, Czechoslovakia began to market a soybean "coffee without caffeine" under the trademark Santosa. At about the same time Fischer and Follmann of Dresden, Germany also started to make and market a soy coffee (Horvath 1927). In 1917 Fuerstenberg in Germany, after discussing the work of Haberlandt and Marschner with soy coffee stated that good soy coffee could be made by the Thunschen process requiring washing with hot water before roasting. "The aroma of soy coffee can be improved by impregnation with an extract of largely decaffeinated coffee. It has roughly twice the nutrients of regular coffee and no harmful constituents." In 1921 Rouest in France mentioned briefly the work of Heuze and Kornauth (what did they do??) with soy coffee. The last known mention of soy coffee in Europe was by Spirk (1936) who noted that in Czechoslovakia some of the native soybeans were made into Kaboul, a coffee substitute.
History of Soy Coffee in the United States . It seems quite likely that the first food Americans learned to make from the soybeans was soy coffee. By 1854 at least one variety of soybean (probably the Ito San) had come to be known in the US as the "coffee berry" ( Rural New Yorker , 21 Jan. 1854. No! Can't find it. Who said this??). Although there is no specific reference to soybeans being used to make coffee prior to 1884, it seems likely that if the soybean was being called "coffee berry," it was being used to some degree to make coffee. However it is conceivable that the bean could have been imported from Europe bearing that name and never been used prior to 1884 to make soy coffee. Concerning the early use of soy coffee in America, Piper and Morse wrote in 1923: "It is recorded that during the period of the Civil War the soybean was used rather extensively in the southern states as a coffee substitute. For a considerable while seedsmen sold the Ito San variety under the names Coffee Berry and Coffee Bean." Unfortunately the authors do not cite the source of their information, which could be the first recorded use of soybeans as food in America.
The first specific US reference to the use of roasted soybeans as a coffee substitute appeared in 1892 when Mr. L.D. Brown, a farmer near Lafayette, Indiana, wrote that he had used roasted soybeans "almost exclusive of other coffee, for coffee, for many years--seven or eight, I believe." Also in 1892 a man named Cole from Missouri advertised extensively at $3.50 per pound, cash with order, what he called "Cole's Domestic Coffee Berry." its remarkable merit as a coffee substitute was set forth in a leaflet, which included testimonials. The product was later found to be nothing but soybeans, which typically sold for 15 cents a pound. In 1893 the Rural New Yorker noted that "The Soy bean is used to some extent as a coffee substitute." All of the above early uses were first discussed in 1894 by Plumb of the Purdue Agricultural Experiment Station in a bulletin on the use of roasted soybeans as a coffee substitute. Roasted soybeans, grown on the station grounds in 1892, were analyzed and found to contain 37.8% protein and 21.6% fat versus zero and 13.2% respectively for real coffee. Of the soy coffee, 17.1% became soluble when boiled. The report continued:
As tried in the family of the writer, the drink made from the Soy bean was agreeable, and enjoyed more than some of the so-called coffee served in some hotels and restaurants. I have no hesitation in recommending farmers to make a drink from roasted Soy beans, rather than buy the cheap grades of coffee sold on the market, that in so many cases are adulterated with burnt pastry beans, peas, chicory, etc. . . . A tablespoon of the ground beans makes a cup of coffee. Mr. Brown recommends using one-fourth cup of common coffee and three-fourths cup of Soy to begin with . . . (Soy coffee) is for those who desire a substitute for economy and health considerations. In view of the large amounts of highly adulterated coffee sold on the market...
After 1892 the soybean was sold at various times as "Coffee Berry and "Coffee Plant" (Morse 1931). In 1897 Langworthy repeated earlier information about the use of soy coffee in Switzerland and America.
During the first half of the twentieth century, coffee was America's most popular drink; soy coffee played a very minor role. During World War I, Morse (1915) noted that ground roasted soybeans made "an excellent coffee substitute." Williams and Park (1917) found they made "a good substitute for coffee, equal to many of the cereal preparations on the market." The latter were typically made with roasted malt, barley, or bran, plus molasses. Horvath (1927) gave the best review to date of developments with soy coffee around the world. In 1934 Henry Ford served "Roasted Soybean Coffee" to the press at a gala soyfoods luncheon at the Chicago World's Fair. By 1936 J.H. Kellogg's Battle Creek Food Company was marketing Soy Kee, a "100% soybean roasted coffee substitute,"and Madison Foods, another Seventh-day Adventist group, had introduced Soy-Koff (containing roasted soybeans, bran, and brown sugar) in regular and fine grinds. Also in 1936 a soy coffee brand-named Soyco, and in 1938 Radcliff's 100% Soya Bean Beverage (coffee substitute) were being sold in Los Angeles health food stores. The first American recipe for homemade soy coffee appeared in Jethro Kloss' Back to Eden (1939).
During World War II, coffee rationing created a tremendous demand for coffee substitutes as "victory drinks and coffee stretchers." Butlers Foods introduced Soy-Kawfee in the early 1940s and Loma Linda Foods had introduced Breakfast Cup (a roasted grin and soy coffee substitute) by 1943. The National Restaurant Association Newsletter for 9 September 1943 listed 13 companies that made or handled soy coffee; at least 8 of these were manufacturers (Ref??). By 1944 Soy-B Prep Products in New York was making Nuveco (containing soybeans, chicory, and coffee) and Victory Nuveco (with soybeans and chicory) and Cubbison Products in Los Angeles was making Soyfee. In 1945 Mildred Lager was able to report in The Useful Soybean :
Every health-food store stocks several so-called `coffee substitutes' made from soybeans, either all soy or the beans mixed with roasted grains and some fruits. Some of these preparations are made instantly with hot water, while others are in the various grinds for percolating, drip, or Silex coffee makers.
With the end of the war and of coffee rationing, soy coffee quickly fell in popularity. To try to boost sales, some companies tried adding herbs to make new "health drinks" (Morse and Cartter 1952). Some brands survived and in 1961 producers included Loma Linda (Breakfast Cup), Soy Products Co. in Iowa (Soycup), MacDowell Bros. in Ontario, Canada (Soybean Coffee), Vegetable Products Co. in New York (Bevasoy coffee substitute and Richblend coffee extender), and Madison Foods (Zoy-koff).
By the 1970s, with the growing interest in natural foods and the growing awareness of the health dangers of coffee, there was a new interest in coffee substitutes. Coffee consumption fell from 15 lb per capita coffee beans purchased in 1957 to only 10.8 lb in 1980, a decline of 28% in 13 years. Still coffee sales amounted to $4,800 million a year. Milk passed coffee to become America's most popular beverage. Medical research linked coffee consumption with heart attacks, cancer (of the pancreas, stomach, and bladder), and birth defects. In addition caffeine was well known to cause restlessness and nervousness ("the jitters"), excitement, insomnia, gastro-intestinal complaints (acid stomach), and frequent urination. Medically, the problem was called caffeinism. Moreover, coffee was one of the crops most heavily sprayed with pesticides banned for use in the US. Even decaffeinated coffee was not seen as a perfect solution, since in most brands the caffeine is removed by methylene chloride, a toxin, though little or none remains in the finished product.
In 1978 Rao and co-workers in Louisiana found that a blend of equal parts defatted, roasted soybeans and coffee produced a good-tasting beverage. In 1979, when coffee prices worldwide suddenly skyrocketed, soy coffees reappeared like mushrooms after a rain. In America, Shirbroun's Best Brew, developed by Darrel Shirbroun in Callender, Iowa, was a new favorite. Manufactured by Dadco Foods in Wisconsin under Shirbroun's 1980 patent (No. 4,187,324; Ref??), it is made from soybeans that are largely defatted, then crushed, ground, and roasted. As packaged, it contained 56% protein and 1.1% fat. An 8-ounce cup of the brewed soy coffee contained 5.0 calories but only 0.29 grams of protein. One teaspoon made a cup of coffee and a pound bag sold for about $2. Another US coffee substitute was Badger Blend, made by Northwestern Coffee Mills and containing barley, chicory, and roasted soybeans. Soy coffee was also popular in Canada (MacDowell Bros., Ontario), the Philippines, and parts of Europe. Yet many of the most popular coffee substitutes in the West, based on roasted barley, malt, and roasted chicory root, contained no soy at all.
History of Soy Coffee in East Asia . The idea of soy coffee came to East Asia from the West. Piper and Morse (1923) reported that at that time soy coffee was being marketed in small packets in Japan. In 1927 Horvath wrote that a soy coffee was being made by the Kai Cheng Bean Products Co. in Beijing (run by the French-Chinese soyfoods pioneer Li Yu-ying). It was claimed to be "a good substitute for real coffee, cures constipation, and improves appetite." When William Morse visited Dairen (then in South Manchuria, which was under Japanese control), in 1930 he found an instant coffee substitute called "Health Coffee" made from roasted soybeans, another made from half roasted soybeans and half coffee-chicory blend, and still another imported German soybean coffee. Thereafter we know of no references to soy coffee in East Asia.
Soy chocolate is typically made by mixing roasted soy flour with cocoa butter (the fat obtained from cacao beans) and sugar.
Etymology . In the early European literature, soy chocolate was usually referred to indirectly, such as "ground roasted soybeans can be used to make a chocolate substitute." In French the term chocolat de soja was first used by Li and Grandvoinnet in 1911-12. The product is now called Soja Schokolade in German and Soyalatein Spanish. In English this product was first called "soybean chocolate" by Horvath in 1927. Shurtleff (1982) coined the term "soy chocolate."
History of Soy Chocolate in Europe . The world's earliest known reference to soy chocolate was by Haberlandt, who wrote in 1878: "Mr. Franz Mark in Budapest called my attention to the possible use of the soybean as a chocolate substitute, for which it would undoubtedly serve better than the peanut . . . In Marseilles, peanuts are ground with sugar and used to make an inexpensive but still rather good chocolate." Haberlandt's statement was repeated by Wein (1881), Grimme (1914), and Fuerstenberg (1917). By late 1910 or 1911 Li Yu-ying in Paris was making a soy chocolate using roasted soybeans, cocoa butter, and sugar. In Le Soja (1912) he and Grandvoinnet described it, pointed out that unlike chocolate, it contained no toxic theobromine, and reported that the chemical composition and flavor were close to those of real chocolate. In 1912 F.G. LeComte was granted a British Patent (No. 7,232; March 23) for soy chocolate. A similar British patent was granted to N. Bergey in Paris in 1912 (No. 5,619; March 1). Both patents described a process very similar to that used in Li's plant, except that Bergey's used soy sprouts and listed vanilla as an optional ingredient; both listed defatting as an optional process. In 1927 Horvath gave a good summary of work done worldwide with soy chocolate. In 1929 in an article on "Soya Flour," Food Manufacture magazine in England wrote, "Soya is used to advantage as an ingredient in chocolate, replacing to some extent the relatively expensive cocoa-butter. . . . There can be no doubt that soya-chocolate will take its place amongst the concentrated foods used by explorers and others." The magazine found that an inexpensive chocolate, containing no cocoa butter and extended with 10% soy flour had "an extraordinarily agreeable flavor." In the early 1930s, it was stated that Berczeller's soy flour could be mixed with equal parts of cocoa to make soy cocoa, which could be prepared with either milk or water to make a tasty, nutritious drink. We know of no subsequent references to soy chocolate in Europe.
History of Soy Chocolate in the United States . The earliest known reference to soy chocolate in the US or in English was by Piper and Morse (1923) who wrote: "The manufacture of a milk chocolate of which the roasted soybean ground into a fine powder is being placed on a commercial basis in Canada and the United States." They also noted that Li Yu-ying in Paris had "prepared a chocolate from the soybean." In 1936 Burlison noted that up to 30% soy flour could be used in chocolate bars and up to 60% in cocoa. By 1938 the following products were being sold in Los Angeles health food stores: Soy Chocolates (1-cent squares), Soy Milk "Chocolate" Bars, Choklateen Malted Soya Milk, and Chocolate Soy-Malt (see Chapter 64). It is not clear in what form the soy appeared in each product. Thereafter, we know of no reference to soy chocolate in the US.
We know of no reference to soy chocolate in East Asia or the Third World.
The history of this product, which can be made from either dry roasted soy flour or oil roasted soynuts, is given in Chapter 25.
We believe that roasted soy flour has one of the greatest potentials in the West of all traditional soyfoods. It can be produced at low cost, stores very well, has an excellent flavor and nutritional value, and could become the key ingredient in an entire line of natural-food treats and confections, of which we find those related to the Japanese Kinako Amé to be the most promising. With the increasing interest in natural and low-cost foods, it might also be revived for use in soy chocolate, soy coffee, and soynut butter. The work of Harper and Lorenz shows that it also has great potential in Third World countries.

Saturday, October 28, 2017

Nestlé, Hershey and Mars promise to make Urangutans, rhinos and clouded leopards, Extinct

Nestlé, Hershey and Mars promise to make Urangutans, rhinos and clouded leopards, Extinct

Nestlé, Hershey and Mars promise to make Urangatangs Extinct


Nestlé, Hershey and Mars 'breaking promises over palm oil use'

This year’s Halloween confectionery will contain palm oil grown on land that should lawfully be habitat to orangutans, rhinos and clouded leopards, despite commitment to clean up supply chains
Forest land cleared for palm oil plantation in Sumatra, Indonesia.
Forest land cleared for palm oil plantation in Sumatra, Indonesia. Photograph: Ulet Ifansasti/Getty Images

Arthur Neslen
Saturday 28 October 2017 10.10 BST First published on Friday 27 October 2017 17.22 BST
Nestlé, Mars and Hershey have been accused of breaking pledges to stop using “conflict palm oil” from deforested Indonesian jungles, just days before the annual Halloween confectionery frenzy.

The Rainforest Action Network (RAN) says consumers have been “deceived” by promises from the brands to clean up their supply chains which were subsequently delayed, revised or watered down.

Laurel Sutherlin, a spokesman for the group, told the Guardian: “For too many years, Nestlé, Mars and Hershey have cherry-picked their [palm oil] targets and then moved the goalposts when they don’t achieve them. There’s just no further room for error to prevent the extinction of tigers, orangutans and elephants.”

The last parcel of Sumatran rainforest in which these three species all roam – along with rhinos, clouded leopards and sun bears – is vanishing at a dramatic pace as lucrative palm oil plantations illegally eat into tropical forestland.

The brands source palm oil from this 2.6m hectare Leuser region, via complex supply chains, some involving traders linked to suppliers illegally logging in the region.

Nestlé promised to end deforestation in its supply chain by 2015 in response to Greenpeace’s KitKat campaign of 2010. After Ran’s “Snack food 20” report, this was upgraded to a pledge of “no sourcing from areas converted from natural forests after 1 February 2013”. The target was missed.

“Four years later we can now trace over 90% of our palm oil back to the mill of origin and almost two thirds back to the plantation level,” said Nestlé spokeswoman Peggy Diby. “Our ambition is to raise this figure to 100% by 2020, back to plantation.”

Pepsico, Unilever and Nestlé accused of complicity in illegal rainforest destruction
Read more
In July, Nestlé told the Guardian it could only source 47% of its palm oil to plantations, suggesting a big improvement in the last three months.

Hershey’s said in 2014 that it would source all of its palm oil back to the mill level by 2015, and to plantations by 2016. But its plantation level sourcing actually fell in 2016 from 27% to 14%, and the commitment has been deferred until 2020.

Greenpeace protestors dressed as orangutans demonstrate against palm oil harvested from rainforest destruction outside a Nestle shareholders’ meeting
Facebook Twitter Pinterest
Greenpeace protestors dressed as orangutans demonstrate against palm oil harvested from rainforest destruction outside a Nestle shareholders’ meeting. Photograph: Antoine Antoniol/Bloomberg/Getty Images
Jeff Beckman, Hershey’s communications director said: “While we remain deeply committed to pushing all stakeholders to accelerate traceability and bring full transparency to this supply chain along with our supplier partners, we realised it would take more time to achieve this goal than originally anticipated.”

Mars did not respond to a request for comment, despite a promise of “cutting suppliers trafficking conflict palm oil by the end of 2015,” which campaigners claim has not been met.

Gemma Tillack, Ran’s campaign director said: “It is our view that the brands have deceived consumers by continually claiming to be tackling deforestation when they have not executed the actions required to achieve a moratorium on the forest frontlines of their global supply chains.”

Since you’re here …
… we have a small favour to ask. More people are reading the Guardian than ever but advertising revenues across the media are falling fast. And unlike many news organisations, we haven’t put up a paywall – we want to keep our journalism as open as we can. So you can see why we need to ask for your help. The Guardian’s independent, investigative journalism takes a lot of time, money and hard work to produce. But we do it because we believe our perspective matters – because it might well be your perspective, too.

I appreciate there not being a paywall: it is more democratic for the media to be available for all and not a commodity to be purchased by a few. I’m happy to make a contribution so others with less means still have access to information.
Thomasine F-R.
If everyone who reads our reporting, who likes it, helps fund it, our future would be much more secure. For as little as £1, you can support the Guardian – and it only takes a minute. Thank you.

Become a supporter
Make a contribution



Food & drink industry

Trees and forests

Saturday, October 14, 2017

"The National Wheatgrowers Association eliminated.....Guatemala produced more than 50,000 tonnes of wheat in the 1980s.


In Quetzaltenango, Guatemala's second-largest city, economist Mario Anibal Gonzalez teaches at FLACSO, the Latin American Department on Social Sciences. He blames the dismantling of entities designed to support the rural economy for the high rates of migration.
"The National Wheatgrowers Association was eliminated. Guatemala produced more than 50,000 tonnes of wheat in the 1980s. The price was regulated, and there were protections. When the organisation was eliminated, all that was lost. Now, anyone under the age of 15 has no idea that wheat was ever grown in Quetzaltenango," he said.
He laments Guatemala's dependence on remittances and decries the government's lack of effort to develop alternative sources of income within the country. "The former president of the Bank of Guatemala, Lizardo Sosa, said that it was good that people left because their needs weren't met here and that they sent their money home. He said this should be stimulated," Gonzaléz recalled. "I told him he was exploiting the people's poverty."
Nearly one in 10 Guatemalan families receives remittances, according to the country's national household survey. The Inter-American Development Bank (IADB) reported that in 2015, these funds accounted for nearly 10 percent of Guatemala's GDP, or $6.3bn.



17 oct. 2008 - Guatemala era el único país de Centroamérica que tenía producción de trigo y molinos productores de harina de trigo. La producción nacional ...


Planta gramínea anual, de la familia del césped, con espigas de cuyos granos molidos se saca la harina.

Su nombre científico es el genus triticum.
Es uno de los cereales más usados en la elaboración de alimentos.

Está representado por dos especies las cuales son de carácter anual:
1.Triticum aestivum: corresponde al trigo harinero, el cual se utiliza básicamente en la producción de harina para pan, galletas y repostería.

2.Triticum turgidum : corresponde al trigo duro o candeal. Este último se destina fundamentalmente a la obtención de semolina para la fabricación de fideos y pastas.

El trigo ha formado parte del desarrollo económico y cultural del hombre, siendo el cereal más cultivado.
El trigo puede crecer en diversidad de latitudes, climas y suelos, aunque se desarrolla mejor en zonas templadas. Debido a esto, es posible encontrar cosechas de trigo en todos los continentes.

País Toneladas
China 96.3
India 72.0
Estados unidos 57.1
Rusia 47.7
Francia 36.9
Canadá 25.5
Australia 24.4


Guatemala era el único país de Centroamérica que tenía producción de trigo y molinos productores de harina de trigo. La producción nacional no era suficiente para abastecer el mercado, que se complementaba con la importación de trigo y harina procedente de los Estados Unidos.
El resto de los países centroamericanos no producían trigo y tenían cada uno un molino que se abastecía de trigo importado con aranceles cero o muy bajos, Guatemala, que sí producía trigo, protegía su agricultura mediante aranceles y cuotas de importación de trigo.

A inicios del gobierno de Idígoras Fuentes (1958-1963), se habían agravado problemas por comercialización y precios del trigo nacional, sugirió a los trigueros, que eran en su mayoría minifundistas, que se organizaran y en conjunto pelearan o plantearan sus demandas a los molineros: precios de trigo, peso, humedad, condiciones de pago, etc.
De esta cuenta se organizó la Gremial Nacional de Trigueros, mediante el Decreto 1490, que agrupaba, por un lado a los trigueros y en forma muy sui géneris a los harineros en una organización que se llamaba Oficina Reguladora de la Importación de Trigo.

A inicios de los años 60 se insistía en el perfeccionamiento del proceso de Integración Económica de Centroamérica, entre otras cosas en la equiparación arancelaria, libre comercio del trigo y harina y derivados del trigo. Se insistía en lo anterior por organismos internacionales que asesoraban y supervisaban el desarrollo del Mercado Común Centroamericano, entre ellos la AID. La situación de manera muy concreta era la siguiente: Guatemala era el único país de Centroamérica que tenía producción de trigo y molinos productores de harina de trigo. La producción nacional no era suficiente para abastecer el mercado, que se complementaba con la importación de trigo y harina procedente de los Estados Unidos. El resto de los países centroamericanos no producían trigo y tenían cada uno un molino que se abastecía de trigo importado con aranceles cero o muy bajos, Guatemala, que sí producía trigo, protegía su agricultura mediante aranceles y cuotas de importación de trigo.[1]
A inicios del gobierno de Idígoras Fuentes, se habían agravado problemas por comercialización y precios del trigo nacional frente a los dos o tres molinos grandes que en esa época existían, por lo que este Presidente sugirió a los trigueros, que eran en su mayoría minifundistas, que se organizaran y en conjunto pelearan o plantearan sus demandas a los molineros: precios de trigo, peso, humedad, condiciones de pago, etc.

De esta cuenta se organizó la Gremial Nacional de Trigueros, mediante el Decreto 1490, que agrupaba, por un lado a los trigueros y en forma muy sui géneris a los harineros en una organización que se llamaba Oficina Reguladora de la Importación de Trigo. Estas dos agrupaciones llegaron a acuerdos en cuanto a los problemas de precios, cuotas de importación, control de la producción de harina y trigo, impuestos para su sostenimiento, etc.

Como decíamos, a inicios de los años 60, se manifiesta la amenaza para la producción del trigo, que mediante los compromisos de Integración, deberían eliminarse los aranceles proteccionistas, eliminarse las cuotas de importación, etc., en pocas palabras dejar funcionar el libre comercio de trigo y sus derivados en Centroamérica, lo cual significaba que el libre comercio era para importar trigo y harina de los Estados Unidos, producción que ya se señalaba en aquellos años, era altamente subsidiada y eso significaría la eliminación de la producción triguera en Guatemala y que causaría grave perjuicio a unos 30,000 productores del altiplano de Guatemala, los cuales estaban agrupados precisamente en la Gremial Nacional de Trigueros, GNT. El gobierno del coronel Enrique Peralta Azurdia, por otras circunstancias intervino la Gremial Nacional de Trigueros, pero contrariamente a lo que se esperaba, dicho Gobierno le dio verdadero apoyo a las actividades de la GNT, facilitó investigaciones sobre la producción de trigo, de esa cuenta de elaboró el estudio "Investigación sobre la producción de trigo en Guatemala" publicada en 1966, que sirvió para rebatir muchos de los argumentos que se esgrimían por los adalides del libre comercio en contra de la producción triguera. (Esta investigación se dirigió, con la colaboración del Dr. Humberto Flores Alvarado y de los licenciados Antonio Ramos G. y Raúl Rodríguez, ya fallecidos éstos dos últimos). Dicho gobierno facilitó el que en las reuniones de Integración Económica en que se tratara el asunto del trigo, la GNT tenía representación y se hacía oír su voz. La GNT en ese tiempo introdujo el uso de semillas mejoradas, creó variedades específicas para distintas regiones del país, incrementó notablemente el uso de fertilizantes y las labores de mecanización del cultivo, su meta era sustituir en gran parte la importación de trigo extranjero.
De los años 60 hasta inicios de los 90, la GNT defendió su posición frente a diversas presiones que aducían como argumentos que el trigo de Guatemala no servía para elaborar pan, cuestión que mediante una investigación, se demostró que no era cierto. Se decía que los rendimientos del cultivo eran inadecuados, lo cual se desvirtuó en su momento. Durante mucho tiempo se argumento que el precio del pan era alto debido al subsidio que prácticamente tenía la producción nacional y a la protección de la misma, que si se liberaba el trigo y harina, el precio del pan bajaría y que eso iba en beneficio de las clases necesitadas, se demostró que el precio del pan en esa época incluía un margen amplio de ganancia que quedaba en poder de los panificadores y que no era el costo del trigo nacional lo esencial del mismo, etc. Con la ola neoliberal de los años 80 las presiones de distinto orden continuaron hasta que, durante el gobierno de Álvaro Arzú, el Congreso de la República derogó, el Decreto Legislativo 1490 y dio el golpe final a la Gremial Nacional de Trigueros, desapareciendo así una organización de más de 30,000 campesinos minifundistas, que ya antes habían venido sufriendo una serie de medidas que mermaron la producción triguera, se liberó la importación de trigo y harina y se eliminaron las barreras arancelarias, todo lo cual condujo a que actualmente hayan desaparecido varios molinos de trigo, que la producción se haya reducido a unos 150,000 quintales, o sea, a la décima parte de lo que producía a finales de los años 60, que desapareció una organización de campesinos que tenía como metas incrementar la producción para sustituir importaciones, que se proponía industrializar subproductos del trigo, es decir, crear una agroindustria del trigo, mediante aprovechamiento de la paja, etc. y, finalmente el precio del pan a todo guatemalteco consta que no se redujo, que al contrario se incrementó y disminuyó su peso, que prácticamente desapareció del mercado la producción de un pan popular como eran las shecas de granillo y se cambió el hábito de consumo de pan francés por el llamado pan de molde (pan blanco rodajado, cuya elaboración sí requiere necesariamente trigo importado, duro de invierno).

Se puede concluir que la producción de trigo en Guatemala ha disminuido significativamente debido principalmente a la disminución de la superficie dedicada a este cultivo. La disminución en la superficie cosechada inicia al final de la década de los 80's y sigue durante toda la década de los 90's. Es importante mencionar que es durante este periodo cuando el precio de los granos a nivel mundial se ve más afectado, reflejando así, muy bajas o nulas utilidades a los agricultores de esta región agrícola. El rendimiento promedio durante 15 años se ha mantenido en alrededor de 2 t/h y actualmente la superficie cultivada apenas supera las 5,000 hectáreas. La importación se ha incrementado casi 3 veces en los últimos 10 años en comparación a los niveles de 1984/85.[2]

[1] http://www.diariolahora.com.gt. 25/08/2008.
[2] Gremial Nacional de Trigueros (1984/85 - 1995/96), Asociación Nacional de Trigueros -ANAT- y Banco de Guatemala.

Produccion Agricola en Guatemala - DEGUATE.com

www.deguate.com › Economia y Finanzas › Producción
21 feb. 2014 - El responsable que introdujo el cultivo del trigo en Guatemala fue Francisco Castellanos, debido a que el pan era un alimento fundamental ...

Guatemala - Trigo - Producción (Toneladas) - 2016 - Actualitix

Guatemala - Trigo - Producción (Toneladas) Estadísticas sobre : .Guatemala Este país es : .Trigo -Producción (Toneladas) : Gráfica(GuatemalaTrigo ...


17 oct. 2008 - Guatemala era el único país de Centroamérica que tenía producción de trigo y molinos productores de harina de trigo. La producción nacional ...

Producción Agrícola de Guatemala - WikiGuate

26 abr. 2015 - La Producción Agrícola de Guatemala es el sector productivo con mayor importancia ...Trigo: Es producido en San Marcos, Quetzaltenango, ...

Productos Agrícolas de Guatemala | Mundo Choc Cac

8 jul. 2011 - TRIGO: los departamentos donde más se produce son: ... MANÍ O CACAHUATES: los departamentos de mayor producción han sido ...

Bibliografias agricolas de America Central: Guatemala

Ruth Ramírez de Amaya - 1975 - ‎Agriculture
Informe Mensual de Mercados (Guatemala) 4(4) :130-142. 1956. (mimeo) =BG= (1838 El cultivo deltrigo en Guatemala. Informe Económico (Guatemala) 7(7-8) ...

[PDF]Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala Facultad ... - Biblioteca USAC

17 ago. 2012 - Guatemala, como único país que tenía producción de trigo y molinos productores de harina de trigo, protegía a los agricultores y productores.

Thursday, September 28, 2017

Why We Use Organic Honey, Not Agave Syrup

Why We Use Organic Honey, Not Agave Syrup


Why We Use Organic Honey, Not Agave Syrup in Honey Melt® Organic

Why We Use Organic Honey, Not Agave Syrup in Honey Melt® Organic

Agave (pronounced ‘uh-GAH-vay’) nectar is a sweetener that ranks relatively low on both the glycemic index and glycemic load scales. Many health-conscious people have switched to agave as a safer alternative to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), a sweetener that is well documented to cause many health problems.
Unfortunately, agave nectar is actually far worse than HFCS, which is why we only use whole food sweeteners like organic wildflower honey and organic coconut nectar in Honey Melt. Most agave syrup has fructose contents higher than any commercial sweetener ranging from 70 to 97 percent.
Leading experts across the country, including Dr. Andrew WeilDr. Mercola, and the Weston A. Price Foundation, caution against the use of agave nectar as a “healthy” and “safe” alternative to HFCS. As reported by Dr. Ingrid Kohlstadt, a fellow of the American College of Nutrition and an associate faculty member at Johns Hopkins School of Public Health: “Agave is almost all fructose, a highly processed sugar with great marketing.”
Fructose does not increase insulin levels but dramatically increases insulin resistance, which is far more dangerous. Research shows that excessive fructose consumption deranges liver function and promotes obesity. Fructose is a major culprit in the rising incidence of Type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. It may also increase risks of heart disease and cancer.
The less fructose you consume, the better.
(While fructose is the primary sugar in most fruits, fruits in their whole form also contain fiber, vitamins, minerals, and vital nutrients like antioxidants. Fructose is not intrinsically bad for you, however moderation is highly recommended since HFCS is added to virtually every processed food.)
What is Agave?
Agaves grow primarily in Mexico but also in the southern and western United States and South America. Agaves are succulents of the yucca family, more closely related to amaryllis and other lilies. Edible parts of the agave are the flowers, leaves, stalks and the sap.
Blue agave is an exotic plant growing in the rich volcanic soil of Mexico under a hot tropical sun with a stately flower stem that blooms only once in its lifetime. “Agave” literally means “noble.” It’s generally recognized as a superstar of the herbal remedy world claiming to offer relief for indigestion, bowel irregularity and skin wounds.
Ferment it, and you have Mexico’s favorite adult beverage – tequila.
Unfortunately agave’s royal pedigree has no relation to the high-fructose syrup sold as agave nectar, which is a highly processed and refined product.
Most agave “nectar” is not made from the sap of the yucca or agave plant but from its pineapple-like root bulb. The root has a complex carbohydrate called inulin that is made up of fructose molecules. The process that many agave producers use to convert this inulin into “nectar” is very similar to the process by which cornstarch is converted into HFCS. Most commercially available agave is converted into fructose-rich syrup using genetically modified enzymes and a chemically intensive process involving caustic acids, clarifiers and filtration chemicals.
Other Reasons to Steer Clear of Agave
Poor Quality Control. Few quality controls are in place to monitor the production of agave syrup. Because most agave sold in the U.S. comes from Mexico, industry insiders are concerned that most agave producers are using lesser, even toxic, agave plants due to a shortage of blue agave.
Pesticides. There are concerns that some distributors are adulterating agave syrup with corn syrup – how often and to what extent is unknown. The FDA has refused shipments of agave syrup due to excessive pesticide residues.
Saponins. Agave is known to contain large amounts of saponins. Saponins are toxic steroid derivatives, capable of disrupting red blood cells and producing diarrhea and vomiting. There is also a possible link between saponins and miscarriage by stimulating blood flow to the uterus. So you should definitely avoid agave products if you are pregnant.
Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Some agave syrups contain HMF (a contaminant also called 5-hydroxymethyl furfural), which is an organic heat-formed compound that arises in the processing of fructose – in both agave syrup and HFCS. HMF has potential toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects.
Nutrient Void. Agave syrup is not a whole food as nearly every brand’s product is fractionated and processed, thereby devoid of the nutrients contained in the original whole plant.
Enzymes. Agave syrup is not a live food. The natural enzymes are removed by most companies to prevent agave syrup from fermenting and turning into tequila in your food pantry or cabinet.
Addictiveness. Agave is, for all intents and purposes, highly concentrated sugar. Sugar and sweeteners wreak havoc on your health and are highly addictive.
Posted in: BlogHealth

Agave-A Healthy Sweetener or Fat Fuel? -- Simple Smart Nutrition

Sep 20, 2011 - The truth is, agave nectar or agave syrup is not a natural sweetener at all, but ... of blue agave and the agave is heavily sprayed with pesticides.

Label.ology: Agave Nectar (Syrup) | Christina Cooks

Feb 10, 2015 - She says agave is really not much different than sugar and “is ... Nutritionally and functionally, agave syrup is similar to high-fructose corn syrup .... a crop that was heavily treated with arsenical pesticides for decades in part to ...

Is Agave Nectar Good For You? | Underground Health Reporter

undergroundhealthreporter.com › Breaking News
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has found high levels of pesticides in some shipments ofagave syrup and the products have been refused entry.

Why Agave Nectar Is Not Worse Than High-Fructose Corn Syrup

Apr 5, 2010 - Recently, agave nectar has been compared to high-fructose corn syrup, and said to be ... Agave is not “laced with corn syrup” or pesticides.

High-Fructose Corn Syrup: Not So Sweet for the Planet

www.washingtonpost.com › Print Edition › Sunday Source
Mar 9, 2008 - High-fructose corn syrup "may be cheap in the supermarket, but in the ... nutrients, requiring more pesticides and fertilizer while weakening topsoil. ... Agave nectar is extracted from cacti that grow in the Mexican desert -- not ...

Agave Syrup - Sugar and Sweetener Guide

Agave Syrup also called Agave Nectar, is a syrup that can contain up to 90% ... been found to contain excessive pesticide residues and saponins which can be ...