Sunday, June 3, 2018

The Future of Ancient Corn




https://civileats.com/2017/10/27/ancient-corn-is-coming-to-whole-foods-but-remains-out-of-reach-in-mexico/

The Future of Ancient Corn

Eating a tortilla made from landrace corn, whether Mexican or U.S.-grown, from Masienda, Maizajo, or any of the companies that will inevitably follow in their steps, is a communion of sorts; receiving it, freshly made from a comal or out of a vacuum sealed pack, acknowledges the millennia of work that has led to that point, to that particular tortilla tasting that way, having that color and texture and reflecting that particular soil. A single tortilla can be a stark reminder of the world’s fragile biodiversity, humanity’s role in shaping it, and the imperative to try and protect it.
Antonia Chulim Noh’s handmade tortillas on her comal in Kahua, Yucatán. (Photo credit: Venetia Thompson)
Antonia Chulim Noh’s handmade tortillas on her comal in Kahua, Yucatán. (Photo credit: Venetia Thompson.)
For Oaxacan agronomist Amado Ramírez Leyva, it is therefore important to distinguish between the price and true value of landrace corn. “We have to remember that the market is a false idol; a means rather than an end,” he says.
In Ramírez’s opinion, there “isn’t enough landrace corn to feed everyone. The individual farmer who has grown it thus has the right to eat as much of it as he wants, and can then sell what’s left over to those who can afford it. And if more people want it, they will either have to find a way of farming it themselves, or do without.”
Ramírez is quick to insist that whether we’re lucky enough to consume landrace corn or not, we share a duty to “acknowledge their immeasurable historical, cultural and biological value.”
“All of this work on supporting sales of landraces in the U.S., either U.S. or Mexican, is to support small farmers,” Willcox says. “That’s the bottom line, because corn is so dependent on the farmer for conservation.”
Top photo: Antonia Chulim Noh making tortillas by hand in Kahua, Yucatan. The corn is from her own milpa. (Photo credit: Venetia Thompson.).....................................
There is nothing quite like a good tortilla. Unfortunately, almost no one in the U.S. has ever had a good, authentic tortilla—handmade, still warm from the comal it’s been cooked on, from landrace corn grown, nixtamalized, and ground nearby, often by the very same hands making the tortillas. A tortilla speaks of a particular soil, a variety of corn, a certain landscape, and the community that have been its guardians for millennia.
But despite being a staple of Mexican cuisine, culture and history, finding a fresh tortilla made from landrace corn—domesticated, heirloom varieties—is surprisingly difficult in the nation’s capital, and until recently almost impossible outside of Mexico. However, Jorge Gaviria, who founded Masiendain San Francisco in 2014 and began supplying restaurants like Cosme and Taco Maria with landrace Mexican corns, is about to launch Masienda Bodega’s new line of tortillas in 200 different stores across the U.S., including Whole Foods.
“The whole reason we’re launching Masienda Bodega is to democratize the access to landrace corns,” Gaviria explained.
The 30,000 to 40,000 tortillas Masienda will make daily will be made from not only landrace corns imported from several states in Mexico, but also corns farmed organically and sustainably in the U.S. corn belt, a region historically dominated by GMO corn. The company’s goal is to “improve regional ecosystems dedicated to corn production with every pack sold.”
Masienda's landrace corn tortillas. (Photo courtesy of Masienda)
Masienda’s landrace corn tortillas. (Photo credit: Molly DeCoudreaux, courtesy of Masienda.)
Corn, arguably one of humanity’s greatest agronomic achievements, originated in Mexico. It’s now the most widely produced crop in the world, and while the vast majority of this is industrialized, super high-yielding genetically modified or modern hybrid corns dependent on heavy pesticide and herbicide use, in Mexico there are still at least 59 recorded unique native landraces.
Corn is unique because it evolved entirely thanks to ancient meso-American farmers who saved and selected different kernels over thousands of years of domestication to produce varieties not only suited to Mexico’s many different ecosystems, but also for purposes including their specific colors, textures, flavors, and ceremonial uses. As a result, there is now a plant species with tremendous diversity.
Preserving these ancient varietals is essential, not least to ensure its future sustainability, but also because “this goes beyond food; reduced diversity takes away a part of civilization’s identity and traditions,” says Martha Willcox, geneticist and Landrace Maize Improvement Coordinator at the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). “Traditional landraces are the backbone of rural farming in Mexico, and a source of tradition in cooking and ceremonies as well as being an economic driver through tourism. They need to be preserved.”
Masienda’s tortillas will be the first commercially available, fully traceable landrace corn tortillas to enter the thriving U.S. tortilla market. And making them using the ancient, pre-Columbian nixtamal process—cooking the corn in slaked lime, or cal, to make the calcium, amino acids, and vitamin B3 in every kernel bio-available for humans—will bring them even closer to authenticity. But will popularity and accessibility follow suit?

State of the Tortilla in Mexico and the U.S.

U.S. supermarket demand for tortillas has been steadily rising, due to the burgeoning Hispanic population, the worldwide Mexican food trend, the growing gluten-free market, and the availability of low-cost corn.
But the popularity of the tortilla masks serious polemics in the world of corn that explain why Masienda wants to enter the marketplace. The Mexican multinational Gruma, founded in 1949, currently dominates the tortilla market in Mexico and the U.S., although their heavily processed products—including Maseca corn flour and Mission and Guerrero brand tortillas in the U.S.—concern people like Rafael Mier, founder of the Mexico City-based foundation Tortilla de Maíz Mexicana, which lobbies to improve the quality of the tortillas we are eating.
Mier recently spoke at the 7th National Heirloom Expo in Santa Rosa, California, to call for new norms in both Mexico and the U.S., beginning with a legal definition of the words “corn tortilla” designed to prevent further misrepresentation of the Mexican staple, which Mier believes amounts to a form of cultural appropriation.
“It’s crucial we differentiate between a nixtamalized corn tortilla and other corn-based products which are not tortillas,” Mier says. Like many, he worries that there are “whole generations of young Mexicans and Americans who have never tasted an authentic tortilla, made from nixtamalized landrace corn, and who think that a tortilla made from Maseca is how corn tastes.”
Benedicta Alejo Vargas making her famous tricolor tortillas in Morelia, Michoacan using corn from her town, San Lorenzo, Michoacan. (Photo credit: Venetia Thompson)
Benedicta Alejo Vargas making her famous tricolor tortillas in Morelia, Michoacan using corn from her town, San Lorenzo, Michoacan. (Photo credit: Venetia Thompson)
Gruma’s tortillerías can be found all over Mexico, from the tiniest villages in rural Yucatan to the vast cities of the industrial north; they even offer financial support to anyone wanting to open one. Their “just add water” concept made instant masa accessible to busy working urban mothers who still wanted to prepare fresh tortillas, but has now become commonplace in both rural and urban kitchens.
Mexico imported around 13 million tons of corn in 2016 from the U.S., expected to increase to between 16.8 and 19.2 million tonnes in the 2017-2018 harvest. The vast majority of this is genetically modified yellow corn, ostensibly for industrial use and animal feed, but there have long been allegations of unscrupulous use of cheap imported yellow corn in processed food, popcorn for cinema chains, and tortillas by large multinationals. Gruma’s 2016 annual investors’ report notes that the company may have inadvertently bought GMO corn that hasn’t been approved for human consumption and that this corn may have found its way into its products. It is no surprise, therefore, that a recent report found that 90.4 percent of tortillas in Mexico contain GMO corn.
While GMO corn remains illegal to farm in Mexico (though not to import), farming modern hybrid corn is also a subject of huge controversy in Mexico. Hybrids are widely thought to be the only way Mexico can produce the 23.5 million metric tons of white corn the country needs annually, because as Martha Willcox explains, “when you industrialize, you have to have something that’s more homogenized.”
Many scientists and farmers of landrace corn fear that the increasingly widespread planting of hybrid varietals (using seed from Monsanto or Pioneer, for example, and their corresponding chemical fertilizers and pesticides) is a major threat to not only the purity of landraces, soil quality, and the entire Mexican ecosystem, but also the Mexican palate.
“We only have to look to the U.S. to see where hybrid corn ultimately leads,” Willcox says. “Some people would argue it’s a marvel that three states can supply the whole of the U.S. with corn, and still have enough left over to export, but it’s a very yield-driven mentality.” She adds that the consolidation of the corn industry has narrowed the genetic base corn growers are working with, but because “we are facing an unknown future, there needs to be a broader genetic base available in plant breeding.”
And of course, preserving a broad genetic base also preserves the huge variety of flavors and textures found in Mexican landraces.
Examples of Ixtenco, Tlaxcala’s extensive landrace corn varietals at the home of Cornelio Hernández Rojas. (Photo credit: Venetia Thompson)
Examples of Ixtenco, Tlaxcala’s extensive landrace corn varietals at the home of Cornelio Hernández Rojas. (Photo credit: Venetia Thompson.)
“New hybrid varietals have been created specifically for certain conditions,” says Cornélio Hernández Rojas. “[Seed companies] have homogenized everything, from the plant’s height, to its taste and color. These companies only care about quantity, not preserving flavor.”
Hernández is a smallholder and anthropologist who lives in Ixtenco in the south-central state of Tlaxcala, where 95 percent of smallholders still farm landrace corns. For him, the idea of a pozole or tamal made from hybrid corn is unthinkable. “These hybrids won’t allow you to enjoy Mexican food—everything would taste the same!” he says.

Capitalizing on Supply and Demand

While finding a tortilla made from rare landraces is relatively easy in Ixtenco, it is much more difficult a couple of hours’ drive east in Mexico City—and expensive. There are of course traditional tortillas made at some of the capital’s top restaurants, such as Pujol (which sources its own corn) and as of a few months ago, Maizajo, a new landrace corn tortillería and research center in the trendy neighborhood of Roma. But the vast majority of tortillas are industrially made, not least because of the prohibitive cost of landrace tortillas—15 pesos for a dozen Maizajo tortillas, compared to around 13 pesos for a kilo of Maseca cornflour tortillas.
Tortillas in Mexico are a staple, to the point that the government has intervened when the price creeps too high. The divide between what the average Mexican can afford to spend on a kilo of tortillas and what it costs to produce a kilo of landrace corn is currently just too wide, limiting the market for many landrace corn farmers to chefs in both the U.S. and Mexico who are willing to pay a premium for its flavor profiles and textures—and people who shop in Whole Foods and see premium tortillas as a gourmet luxury, rather than a daily necessity. For everyone else, it’s the hybrids—at least until Mexico’s landrace farmers are able to increase their yields in a way sustainable to both the land and themselves.
“Mexico has an enormous number of landrace corn farmers,” Willcox says, “but they don’t have a way to connect to the market. The idea is to get them connected and keep them connected, without it becoming something that only Big Ag benefits from.”
Farmers in a milpa, the ancient pre-hispanic crop-growing system still used throughout Mexico. (Photo credit: Molly DeCoudreaux, courtesy of Masienda)
Willcox hopes that the growing U.S. interest in landrace corns will continue to “reverberate in Mexico” and that Maizajo is hopefully the first of many tortillerías focusing on landrace corns—which will eventually improve the efficiency of the supply chain and in turn the availability of good tortillas both sides of the border.
Willcox also encourages U.S.-based companies like Masienda to not only focus on Mexico, but to seek out the few remaining U.S. landrace corn farmers. “Instead of trying to replicate in the U.S. what we have in Mexico, foment what you have in the U.S. that has almost died out,” she says.

The Future of Ancient Corn

Eating a tortilla made from landrace corn, whether Mexican or U.S.-grown, from Masienda, Maizajo, or any of the companies that will inevitably follow in their steps, is a communion of sorts; receiving it, freshly made from a comal or out of a vacuum sealed pack, acknowledges the millennia of work that has led to that point, to that particular tortilla tasting that way, having that color and texture and reflecting that particular soil. A single tortilla can be a stark reminder of the world’s fragile biodiversity, humanity’s role in shaping it, and the imperative to try and protect it.
Antonia Chulim Noh’s handmade tortillas on her comal in Kahua, Yucatán. (Photo credit: Venetia Thompson)
Antonia Chulim Noh’s handmade tortillas on her comal in Kahua, Yucatán. (Photo credit: Venetia Thompson.)
For Oaxacan agronomist Amado Ramírez Leyva, it is therefore important to distinguish between the price and true value of landrace corn. “We have to remember that the market is a false idol; a means rather than an end,” he says.
In Ramírez’s opinion, there “isn’t enough landrace corn to feed everyone. The individual farmer who has grown it thus has the right to eat as much of it as he wants, and can then sell what’s left over to those who can afford it. And if more people want it, they will either have to find a way of farming it themselves, or do without.”
Ramírez is quick to insist that whether we’re lucky enough to consume landrace corn or not, we share a duty to “acknowledge their immeasurable historical, cultural and biological value.”
“All of this work on supporting sales of landraces in the U.S., either U.S. or Mexican, is to support small farmers,” Willcox says. “That’s the bottom line, because corn is so dependent on the farmer for conservation.”
Top photo: Antonia Chulim Noh making tortillas by hand in Kahua, Yucatan. The corn is from her own milpa. (Photo credit: Venetia Thompson.)

Thursday, April 5, 2018










Harina De Frijoles Criollos                           Flour From  Native
Negros, Rojos Y Blancos                              Black, Red,White Beans                                
Tostado Y  Molido                                        Roasted And Ground  
Tostaduria Antigua                                 Antigua Roasters
Antigua Guatemala                                 Antigua Guatemala


Harina De Frijoles Criollos                           Flour From  Native
Negros, Rojos Y Blancos                              Black, Red,White Beans                                
Tostado Y  Molido                                        Roasted And Ground  
Tostaduria Antigua                                 Antigua Roasters
Antigua Guatemala                                 Antigua Guatemala


Harina De Frijoles Criollos                           Flour From  Native
Negros, Rojos Y Blancos                              Black, Red,White Beans                                
Tostado Y  Molido                                        Roasted And Ground  
Tostaduria Antigua                                 Antigua Roasters
Antigua Guatemala                                 Antigua Guatemala

Harina De Frijoles Criollos                           Flour From  Native
Negros, Rojos Y Blancos                              Black, Red,White Beans                                
Tostado Y  Molido                                        Roasted And Ground  
Tostaduria Antigua                                 Antigua Roasters
Antigua Guatemala                                 Antigua Guatemala

Harina De Frijoles Criollos                           Flour From  Native
Negros, Rojos Y Blancos                              Black, Red,White Beans                                
Tostado Y  Molido                                        Roasted And Ground  
Tostaduria Antigua                                 Antigua Roasters
Antigua Guatemala                                 Antigua Guatemala

Harina De Frijoles Criollos                           Flour From  Native
Negros, Rojos Y Blancos                              Black, Red,White Beans                                
Tostado Y  Molido                                        Roasted And Ground  
Tostaduria Antigua                                 Antigua Roasters
Antigua Guatemala                                 Antigua Guatemala

Harina De Frijoles Criollos                           Flour From  Native
Negros, Rojos Y Blancos                              Black, Red,White Beans                                
Tostado Y  Molido                                        Roasted And Ground  
Tostaduria Antigua                                 Antigua Roasters
Antigua Guatemala                                 Antigua Guatemala




Monday, April 2, 2018




                                                     Escuela de Cacao
                                                     'Whole bean' Choclate Bar School

Learn how to make cacao honey bars which we invented ourselves in 2005 to make amazing natural chocolate bars without need to use imported or processed cocoa powder or butter  and guaranteeing that you are using real cocoa butter because it wasn't bought as a white block of possibly hydrogenated vegetable oil but is instead only the real natural cocoa butter found in the native Guatemala cacao beans you roast and grind yourself ! Honey partly mimics texture of cocoa butter which means you don't need to add 10% more butter fat than is naturally in  the bean to make  bars which is the case for conventional bars from Hershey's to the 'best Belgian' chocolate etc.
Classes are Q 150 per person but you get a whole pound of cacao honey we normally sell for Q100 per pound for free,so your class is really only Q 50.You can also make additional pounds of cacao
honey for yourself or to give to friends and family as gifts,etc, for only Q100 PER POUND AND TELL THEM YOU MADE IT YOURSELF.This is NOT a 'ChooCircus',this is real cacao from the
Mayan-Olmec  region where cacao was first domesticated and where the Maya even wrote its name  in stone.





                                                         Escuela De Cafe Y Cacao
                                                         Coffee and chocolate bean
                                                         roasting classes.

Learn to roast coffee.Buy six pounds or more of green coffee beans(Q 45 lb.per pound)and roast it
yourself,(an approximate 2 hour low temperature slow roast process).
Or buy and roast six pounds or more of chocolate beans or cacao beans for Q 50 per pound and roast
them here yourself.
Better yet, learn to make cacao honey bars which we invented ourselves in 2005 to make amazing natural chocolate bars without need to use imported or processed cocoa powder and guaranteeing  that you are using real cocoa butter because it wasn't bought as a white block of possibly hydrogenated vegetable oil but is instead only the real natural cocoa butter found in the native Guatemala cacao beans you roast and grind yourself !
2da Avenida Sur # 36
Antigua Guatemala




                                           Escuela De Cafe Y Cacao
                                          Café y chocolate clases de tostado.

Aprenda a tostar el café. Compre seis libras o más de granos de café verdes (Q 45 lb.per libra) y tápelo
usted mismo, (un proceso aproximado de asado lento a baja temperatura de 2 horas).
O compre y tueste seis libras o más de granos de chocolate o de cacao por Q 50 por libra y tueste
ellos aquí tú mismo.
Mejor aún, aprenda a hacer barras de miel de cacao que nos inventamos en 2005 para hacer increíbles barras de chocolate naturales sin necesidad de usar cacao en polvo importado o procesado y garantizar que está usando manteca de cacao real porque no se compró como un bloque blanco de ¡posiblemente aceite vegetal hidrogenado, pero en su lugar solo es la verdadera manteca de cacao natural que se encuentra en los granos de cacao nativo de Guatemala que usted asa y moltura!


Monday, March 26, 2018

Chocolate Black Bean Protein Shake  - dry bean to canned bean converssion chart

Chocolate Black Bean Protein Shake


Description

Sneak some extra nutrition into your morning with this Chocolate Black Bean Protein Shake. Full of fiber, protein and chocolate-y goodness, you won’t even remember there are beans in it!

Ingredients

  • 1 1/3 cup milk
  • 1 teaspoon vanilla extract
  • 1 Tablespoon honey
  • 2 Tablespoons cocoa powder
  • 1 Tablespoon nut butter
  • 1 cup black beans (no salt added), drained and rinsed
  • 1 banana, sliced and frozen*
  • 1 cup ice

Instructions

  1. Place ingredients in blender in the order listed. Blend on high for 30-60 seconds, or until smooth.
  2. Pour into 2 serving glasses and enjoy!


How do I know how much dried beans to use in place of canned beans?

If your recipe calls for canned beans and you want to use dried beans instead, have no fear!  Below I have created a conversion chart to help you make the switch!  Cans of beans are usually 15-ounce cans, while most small bags of dried beans are about 1 pound.  All numbers are approximate, of course, but seem to work well.
Dried to Canned Beans Conversion. How to Cook with Dried Beans - By Dietitian Brittany

*Bonus Recipe*

Have I convinced you to cook with dried beans yet?  Take a look at this bonus recipe! 
I wouldn’t leave you hanging with all this newfound knowledge on how to cook with dried beans and not provide you with anything to use them in!  As promised, below is a great recipe using dried beans.  I first made this recipe back in my dietetic student days at USU for a health fair.  I cooked it up with a few of my dietitian-to-be classmates and served it to our fellow Aggies.  I don’t want to brag or anything, but it was kind of DELICIOUS!  It is so simple yet results in a great flavor.  Go ahead and give it a try!

Spicy Black Bean Soup (in the slow cooker)

Spicy Black Bean Soup

  • Author: Brittany Poulson
  •  
  • Prep Time: 8 hours
  • Cook Time: 6 hours
  •  
  • Total Time: 14 hours
  • Yield: 12 / 6 oz. portions
  •  
  • Category: Soups/Stews


Description

Prep may take a while, but it is easy because you are soaking the beans overnight (all the work is done while you are sleeping). The cooking is done in a slow cooker, so you don’t have to do much work for that either! Just plan ahead for the soaking and the time it takes to cook, then throw it all together and go about your daily business while it cooks to perfection!

Ingredients

  • 1 pound dry black beans, soaked overnight
  • 6 cups chicken broth
  • 4 teaspoons diced Guajillo Chile pepper
  • 1/2 teaspoon garlic powder
  • 1 Tablespoon chili powder
  • 1 teaspoon ground cumin
  • 1 teaspoon cayenne pepper
  • 3/4 teaspoon ground black pepper
  • 1/2 teaspoon hot pepper sauce
  • 4 garlic cloves, diced
  • 1 large onion, diced

  • Instructions

    1. Once the beans have soaked overnight, place in crock-pot and add remaining ingredients (adjust the seasonings and/or spices to desired spiciness).
    2. Cook on high for 4 hours, reduce heat and continue to cook for 2 hours or until beans are soft.
    3. Garnish with low fat sour cream and cilantro.

corn methionine corn methionine nixtamalization


corn  methionine

New Genetically Engineered Corn Could Revolutionize Our Agriculture

https://futurism.com/new-genetically-engineered-corn-could-revolutionize-our-agricul...
Oct 10, 2017 - New research shows how, with the addition of a bacterial gene, corn's nutritional value can be efficiently enhanced. The gene enables corn, the largest commodity crop in the world, to produce methionine, a key amino acid essential for tissue repair and growth. By producing a staple crop that contains ..


Does Corn on the Cob Provide All of the Essential Amino Acids ...

https://www.livestrong.com › Food and Drink
Oct 3, 2017 - Corn does have all of the essential amino acids but is considered a "low-quality" protein or what used to be called an "incomplete"... ... must be provided through your diet. The nine essential amino acids are: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lycine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine

Corn does have all of the essential amino acids but is considered a "low-quality" protein or what used to be called an "incomplete" protein. Low-quality protein foods may be lacking or have very low quantities of the nine essential amino acids and, therefore, should be combined with other foods to provide adequate amounts of all essential amino acids. All protein is comprised of amino acids, and essential amino acids cannot be made by the body, meaning they must be provided through your diet. The nine essential amino acids are: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lycine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine.


Lentils are tiny nutritional powerhouses that offer a variety of health benefits. They are often star players in a balanced vegetarian diet. While lentils do contain all nine essential amino acids that are required by humans, they are low in the amino acid methionine, so you should not rely on them as your sole source of protein. When lentils are consumed along with other plant foods that are rich in methionine, you'll get the right amounts of all of the amino acids that your body needs.


........................................

corn  methionine nixtamalization


Process for production of nixtamalized and non-nixtamalized millet ...

https://www.researchgate.net/.../Process-for-production-of-nixtamalized-and-non-nixtam...
Maasa is a spontaneously fermented millet-based fried cake in Ghana. Nixtamalization, a process of cooking and soaking cereals (usually maize) in lime solution, was applied in the traditional processing of the Ghanaian millet-based fermented maasa. During the processing, Lime cooked millet dough (LCMD) and water ...


Studies and Biological Assays in Corn Tortillas ... - Wiley Online Library

onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2002.tb09476.x/pdf
tained by the extrusion process and to compare them to tortillas made by the traditional nixtamalizationprocess. Materials and Methods. Raw corn meal. Commercial Toluca ... The residual liquid was discarded and the cooked corn (nixtamal) was washed 3 .... lysine to form LAL, with cysteine to form LAT, or with serine to.

ABSTRACT: :
The nutritional composition and protein efficiency ratio (PER) of raw corn meal and of tortillas prepared by extrusion and nixtamalization processes were determined. Rats were fed with diets containing unprocessed raw corn meal (RCM), tortillas prepared from extruded fresh masa without lime (ET), tortillas made from extruded fresh masa with 0.25% lime content (ETWL), and tortillas made with the traditional nixtamalization method (NT). The ETWL had higher protein (8.50%) and dietary fiber (14.52%) contents than did the NT (8.15% protein and 7.39% dietary fiber). The PER value of the ETWL diet was 14.65% higher (P ≤ 0.05) than that of the RCM diet and equivalent to that of the NT diet.